Individual Assignment: Paragraphs and Quote Integration
Body paragraphs (sometimes called “discussion sections”) are the parts of your essay that aren’t the intro or conclusion. Each of these paragraphs will have: a leading topic sentence that states the paragraph’s focus, evidence (quotes, examples, or research), and analysis (your explanation of how the evidence supports the paragraph’s main idea.
magnifying-glass.pngAssignment Overview (350 WORDS at least)
· Choose a story or poem from this Module to focus on
· Decide what aspect or element of the story to focus your paragraph on. (For instance: how the setting emphasizes the story’s meaning, or how a character changes in the story)
· Re-read or scan through the story or poem to find quotes to use in your paragraph
· Be sure you’ve read Chapter 30, pages 1914-1918
· Get reference guides to help you understand paragraph composition:
Write a paragraph that includes:
· Topic sentence
· Example from selected story or poem (Summary and Paraphrase)
· Quote from selected story or poem
· Analysis of evidence
· Summary sentences bringing it all together
Your writings should be:
· About 350 words long
· Related to the readings, assignments, and/or discussions from the selected Module
· Evidence of critical thinking
· Follow MLA formatting guidelines. Find help with MLA formatting guidelines, here: The first line of every paragraph should have a .5” indent on the left hand side. The first page information (the information on the left on the first page) should not be indented.
You should avoid:
· Including material from anything other than the selected literary work
· Googling, researching, or looking up the story or poem
· Copy / pasting from other submissions
· Unprofessional discourse
· Conversational language (you, I, etc.)
Presentation: Introduction to Topic or Theme?
Topic or Theme?
Most of what we think of as literary themes are examples of topics.
Topic: What the work is exploring. The topics are the repeating or central subjects, or recurring ideas in a piece of literature.
· Examples: love, friendship, growing up, good and evil.
Theme: What the work says about the topic. Themes are always expressing as complete sentences and represent the universal idea expressed in the work.
· Examples: the bonds of friendship may be stronger than family ties, the past will always affect the present, what appears good may not always be so, not all things can be overcome by love, growing up requires sacrifice.
Common Literary Topics
· Good and evil
· Coming of age / growing up
· Power and corruption
· Survival / Overcoming hardship
· Social issues (like prejudice, poverty, injustice, inequality)
What is Theme?
· Theme is always a complete sentence.
· Theme is an arguable claim made by a story.
· Theme is the point the story is trying to make.
· Theme connects fiction to our lived human experiences.
· Theme is a big idea, a universal statement, an argument or claim about one of life’s big ideas.
This page (including a short video) Links to an external site. is a good start to understanding theme. https://youtu.be/p1zKaERpWgQ
STORY FROM -The Norton Introduction to Literature by Kelly J. Mays (Shorter Thirteenth Edition)
DAVID FOSTER WALLACE (1962–2008) “Good People” (page 245)
Born in Ithaca, New York, to a philosophy professor and an English teacher, David Foster Wallace has
been dubbed an “outrageously gifted novelist” and “the genius of his generation,” as well as a “recovering smart aleck” and “a decent, decent man.” A philoso-phy and English major at Amherst College, he con-templated a career in math before—at age twenty-four—earning an MFA from the University of Arizona and publishing his first novel, The Broom of the System (1987). His subsequent work includes short-story collections like Brief Interviews with Hideous Men (1999) and Oblivion (2006), as well as wide-ranging nonfiction, some of which appears in A Supposedly Fun Thing I’ll Never Do Again (1997) and Consider the Lobster and Other Essays (2006). At over a thousand pages and with almost four hundred foot-notes, his most famous novel, Infinite Jest (1996), intertwines several narratives set in a near future in which years are named by their corporate sponsors (“Year of the Whop-per”) and New England is a giant toxic-waste dump. Included on Time’s list of the
hundred best novels published since 1923, it also helped earn Wallace a MacArthur “genius grant.” Wallace described his own goal as “morally passionate, passionately moral fiction”
that might help readers “become less alone inside.” Though admired as much for its humor as for its bulk and complexity, his fiction often dwells on what he called “an ineluc-table part of being a human”—“suffering.” Though Wallace long battled depression, his
2008 suicide shocked and saddened fans and fellow writers around the world. The story “Good People,” first published in 2007, ultimately became part of The Pale King (2011), the unfinished novel he left behind.
hey were up on a picnic table at that park by the lake, by the edge of the lake, with part of a downed tree in the shallows half hidden by the bank. Lane A.
Dean, Jr., and his girlfriend, both in bluejeans and button-up shirts. They sat up on the table’s top portion and had their shoes on the bench part that people sat on to picnic or fellowship together in carefree times. They’d gone to different high schools but the same junior college, where they had met in campus ministries. It was springtime, and the park’s grass was very green and the air suffused with hon-eysuckle and lilacs both, which was almost too much. There were bees, and the angle of the sun made the water of the shallows look dark. There had been more storms that week, with some downed trees and the sound of chainsaws all up and down his parents’ street. Their postures on the picnic table were both the same forward kind with their shoulders rounded and elbows on their knees. In this posi-tion the girl rocked slightly and once put her face in her hands, but she was not crying. Lane was very still and immobile and looking past the bank at the downed tree in the shallows and its ball of exposed roots going all directions and the tree’s cloud of branches all half in the water. The only other individual nearby was a (pg246..cont) 246 CH. 4 | CHaRaCTeR
dozen spaced tables away, by himself, standing upright. Looking at the torn-up hole in the ground there where the tree had gone over. It was still early yet and all the shadows wheeling right and shortening. The girl wore a thin old checked cot-ton shirt with pearl-colored snaps with the long sleeves down and always smelled very good and clean, like someone you could trust and care about even if you weren’t in love. Lane Dean had liked the smell of her right away. His mother called her down to earth and liked her, thought she was good people, you could tell—she made this evident in little ways. The shallows lapped from different directions at the tree as if almost teething on it. Sometimes when alone and thinking or strug-gling to turn a matter over to Jesus Christ in prayer, he would find himself putting his fist in his palm and turning it slightly as if still playing and pounding his glove to stay sharp and alert in center. He did not do this now; it would be cruel and indecent to do this now. The older individual stood beside his picnic table—he was at it but not sitting—and looked also out of place in a suit coat or jacket and the kind of men’s hat Lane’s grandfather wore in photos as a young insurance man. He appeared to be looking across the lake. If he moved, Lane didn’t see it. He looked more like a picture than a man. There were not any ducks in view. One thing Lane Dean did was reassure her again that he’d go with her and be
there with her. It was one of the few safe or decent things he could really say. The second time he said it again now she shook her head and laughed in an unhappy way that was more just air out her nose. Her real laugh was different. Where he’d be was the waiting room, she said. That he’d be thinking about her and feeling bad for her, she knew, but he couldn’t be in there with her. This was so obviously true that he felt like a ninny that he’d kept on about it and now knew what she had thought every time he went and said it—it hadn’t brought her comfort or eased the burden at all. The worse he felt, the stiller he sat. The whole thing felt balanced on a knife or wire; if he moved to put his arm up or touch her the whole thing could tip over. He hated himself for sitting so frozen. He could almost visualize himself tiptoeing past something explosive. A big stupid-looking tiptoe, like in a cartoon. The whole last black week had been this way and it was wrong. He knew it was wrong, knew something was required of him that was not this terrible frozen care and caution, but he pretended to himself he did not know what it was that was required. He pretended it had no name. He pretended that not saying aloud what he knew to be right and true was for her sake, was for the sake of her needs and feelings. He also worked dock and routing at UPS, on top of school, but had traded to get the day off after they’d decided together. Two days before, he had awakened very early and tried to pray but could not. He was freezing more and more solid, he felt like, but he had not thought of his father or the blank frozenness of his father, even in church, which had once filled him with such pity. This was the truth. Lane Dean, Jr., felt sun on one arm as he pictured in his mind an image of himself on a train, waving mechanically to something that got smaller and smaller as the train pulled away. His father and his mother’s father had the same birthday, a Cancer. Sheri’s hair was colored an almost corn blond, very clean, the skin through her central part pink in the sunlight. They’d sat here long enough that only their right side was shaded now. He could look at her head, but not at her. Different parts of him felt unconnected to each other. She was smarter than him and they both knew it. It wasn’t just school—Lane Dean was in accounting and business and did all right; he was hanging in there. She was a year older, twenty, but it was also more—she had always seemed to Lane to be on good terms with her life in a way that age could not account for. His
(page 247) mother had put it that she knew what it is she wanted, which was nursing and not an easy program at Peoria Junior College, and plus she worked hostessing at the Embers and had bought her own car. She was serious in a way Lane liked. She had a cousin that died when she was thirteen, fourteen, that she’d loved and been close with. She only talked about it that once. He liked her smell and her downy arms and the way she exclaimed when something made her laugh. He had liked just being with her and talking to her. She was serious in her faith and values in a way that Lane had liked and now, sitting here with her on the table, found himself afraid of. This was an awful thing. He was starting to believe that he might not be serious in his faith. He might be somewhat of a hypocrite, like the Assyrians in Isaiah,1
would be a far graver sin than the appointment—he had decided he believed this. He was desperate to be good people, to still be able to feel he was good. He rarely before now had thought of damnation and Hell—that part of it didn’t speak to his spirit—and in worship services he more just tuned himself out and tolerated Hell when it came up, the same way you tolerate the job you’ve got to have to save up for what it is you want. Her tennis shoes had little things doodled on them from sitting in her class lectures. She stayed looking down like that. Little notes or reading assignments in Bic in her neat round hand on the rubber elements around the sneaker’s rim. Lane A. Dean, looking now at her inclined head’s side’s barrettes in the shape of blue ladybugs. The appointment was for afternoon, but when the door-bell had rung so early and his mother’d called to him up the stairs, he had known, and a terrible kind of blankness had commenced falling through him. He told her that he did not know what to do. That he knew if he was the sales-man of it and forced it upon her that was awful and wrong. But he was trying to understand—they’d prayed on it and talked it through from every different angle. Lane said how sorry she knew he was, and that if he was wrong in believing they’d truly decided together when they decided to make the appointment she should please tell him, because he thought he knew how she must have felt as it got closer and closer and how she must be so scared, but that what he couldn’t tell was if it was more than that. He was totally still except for moving his mouth, it felt like. She did not reply. That if they needed to pray on it more and talk it through, then he was here, he was ready, he said. The appointment could get moved back; if she just said the word they could call and push it back to take more time to be sure in the deci-sion. It was still so early in it—they both knew that, he said. This was true, that he felt this way, and yet he also knew he was also trying to say things that would get her to open up and say enough back that he could see her and read her heart and know what to say to get her to go through with it. He knew this without admitting to him-self that this was what he wanted, for it would make him a hypocrite and liar. He knew, in some locked-up little part of him, why it was that he’d gone to no one to open up and seek their life counsel, not Pastor Steve or the prayer partners at cam-pus ministries, not his UPS friends or the spiritual counselling available through his parents’ old church. But he did not know why Sheri herself had not gone to Pastor Steve—he could not read her heart. She was blank and hidden. He so fervently wished it never happened. He felt like he knew now why it was a true sin and not just a leftover rule from past society. He felt like he had been brought low by it and
(Page 249 below)
rim, holding something under one arm and looking across at the opposite side where a row of little forms on camp chairs sat in a way that meant they had lines in the water for crappie—which mostly only your blacks from the East Side ever did—and the little white shape at the row’s end a Styrofoam creel. In his moment or time at the lake now just to come, Lane Dean first felt he could take this all in whole: every-thing seemed distinctly lit, for the circle of the pin oak’s shade had rotated off all the way, and they sat now in sun with their shadow a two-headed thing in the grass before them. He was looking or gazing again at where the downed tree’s branches seemed to all bend so sharply just under the shallows’ surface when he was given to know that through all this frozen silence he’d despised he had, in truth, been pray-ing, or some little part of his heart he could not hear had, for he was answered now with a type of vision, what he would later call within his own mind a vision or moment of grace. He was not a hypocrite, just broken and split off like all men. Later on, he believed that what happened was he’d had a moment of almost seeing them both as Jesus saw them—as blind but groping, wanting to please God despite their inborn fallen nature. For in that same given moment he saw, quick as light, into Sheri’s heart, and was made to know what would occur here as she finished turning to him and the man in the hat watched the fishing and the downed elm shed cells into the water. This down-to-earth girl that smelled good and wanted to be a nurse would take and hold one of his hands in both of hers to unfreeze him and make him look at her, and she would say that she cannot do it. That she is sorry she did not know this sooner, that she hadn’t meant to lie—she agreed because she’d wanted to believe that she could, but she cannot. That she will carry this and have it; she has to. With her gaze clear and steady. That all night last night she prayed and searched inside herself and decided this is what love commands of her. That Lane should
please please sweetie let her finish. That listen—this is her own decision and obliges him to nothing. That she knows he does not love her, not that way, has known it all this time, and that it’s all right. That it is as it is and it’s all right. She will carry this, and have it, and love it and make no claim on Lane except his good wishes and respecting what she has to do. That she releases him, all claim, and hopes he fin-ishes up at P.J.C. and does so good in his life and has all joy and good things. Her voice will be clear and steady, and she will be lying, for Lane has been given to read her heart. To see through her. One of the opposite side’s blacks raises his arm in what may be greeting, or waving off a bee. There is a mower cutting grass some-place off behind them. It will be a terrible, last-ditch gamble born out of the des-peration in Sheri Fisher’s soul, the knowledge that she can neither do this thing today nor carry a child alone and shame her family. Her values blocked the way either way, Lane could see, and she has no other options or choice—this lie is not a sin. Galatians 4:16, Have I then become your enemy?3
She is gambling that he is
good. There on the table, neither frozen nor yet moving, Lane Dean, Jr., sees all this, and is moved with pity, and also with something more, something without any name he knows, that is given to him in the form of a question that never once in all the long week’s thinking and division had even so much as occurred—why is he so sure he doesn’t love her? Why is one kind of love any different? What if he has no
250 CH. 4 | CHaRaCTeR
earthly idea what love is? What would even Jesus do? For it was just now he felt her two small strong soft hands on his, to turn him. What if he was just afraid, if the truth was no more than this, and if what to pray for was not even love but simple courage, to meet both her eyes as she says it and trust his heart?