The skeletal system and the axial skeleton

Chapter 7 discusses the skeletal system and the axial skeleton, and bone is a hard tissue that constitutes part of the skeleton in most vertebrates’ animals. Their body function includes protecting body organs, producing white and red blood cells, storing minerals, and providing general support to the body. Bones are classified according to shapes and sizes. The long bones are spongy and compact, and they are found in the arm such as ulna, radius, humerus, in the fingers are metacarpals and phalanges and on the toes are metatarsals. Short bones include carpals form the wrist and tarsals from the ankles. Flat bones are curved and thin. They have the skull bones, sternum and ribs. The vertebrae and facial bones are irregular and complex in shape.
The appendicular skeleton comprises bones found on the upper and lower limps and the pelvic girdles and shoulders such as scapula, ulna, radius etc. In contrast, the axial skeleton includes bones along the body’s long axis, such as the vertebral larynx. When using a microscope, the compact bones appear covered with small veins, arteries, lymphatic vessels, and nerves, making them too dense with materials. The spongy bones have spaces and openings on the surfaces.
The thoracic cage look like a domed birdcage with the horizontal bars created by ribs, and the 12 vertebrae support central cartilages. They play an important role by protecting the heart and the lungs. Bone markings are depression and projections found on the bone used for bone identification and finding their location.

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